Mutations health diplomacy meet the challenges of the XXI century
The acceleration of trade and global interdependence has intensified the need for a coordinated and effective governance of health issues, centered around the World Health Organization. The pandemics of AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis have caused a response unprecedented in the international community with the creation of the joint program on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS) in 1994, the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in 2002, UNITAID in 2006, and Podiatrist in Newark. The healing takes further , a key position in the development agenda, with three of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000.
France: generating proposals and financial contributor of the first order
Address global health challenges, France has accelerated its efforts since 2000. Its development assistance for health in 2012 was 773 M € (figures OECD / DAC).
In the fight against the three pandemics (MDG 6), France spearheaded the creation of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, which is the 2nd financial, contributing annually 360 million euros (commitment to triennium 2014-2016). He also proposed the creation of the international drug purchase fund UNITAID , which is the first contributor with 110 million euros in 2013.
Together with its G8 partners, France has reinforced its support to the fight against maternal and child mortality (MDG 4 and MDG 5) under the Muskoka Initiative (2010), pledging to devote to such a policy 100 million euros additional year, from 2011 to 2015. It is the 4th Level of the global partnership to promote vaccination and immunization GAVI (79 M € in 2013) country.
France has been a pioneer in mobilizing innovative financing for health, which allow to obtain new resources and ensure greater predictability of funding. The whole of the French contribution to UNITAID come from the solidarity levy on airline tickets, founded in 2006. Most of the contribution to GAVI through the International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm), where France is committed 1,300 million in twenty years.
France defends the issue of universal health coverage in the international arena. It has inspired the resolution on this subject, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2012. It has created partnership with GermanyProviding for Health , based in the World Health Organization. In 2013, it launched the Solidarity Health Sahel (I3S) initiative in favor of free medical care for children in Sahel.
France and WHO
WHO is a central institution for global health, which exercises regulatory functions, data collection and recommendations to States. Also it exercises operational functions of technical assistance for countries and coordinates the actors in global health.
France is a founding member of the WHO, whose vision and whose fundamental objectives shared. maintains privileged relations with the organization because of its health expertise, its mandated contribution (5th rank) and semi-permanent position on the executive board member.
A framework agreement signed by France and WHO determines common priorities for the period 2014-2019, based on four areas of cooperation: international health security: fight against epidemic and pandemic diseases, particularly through the implementation of the International Health Regulations ( RSI) health development goals: combination of Millennium Development Goals and the future framework of the United Nations development after 2015, action on risk factors: in relation to noncommunicable diseases and environmental determinants health; strengthening health systems: as part of the progression towards universal health coverage.
The presence since 2001 of a WHO office in Lyon, in charge of building the capacity of countries to deal with international health emergency situations, strengthens the relationship. This office has a crucial role in implementing the International Health Regulations, priority of France and WHO.
France also supports the implementation of WHO strategies to reduce risk factors for noncommunicable diseases(mostly cancers, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases), responsible for two thirds of global mortality. France promotes in particular adherence to the Framework Convention Snuff Control (FCTC) and the protocol to eliminate illicit trade in snuff products ( www.who.int/fctc/fr/ )
In the field of health systems, coordination of health research and development, sustainable financing of health systems, training and retention of human resources in the health field, prequalification of medicines and combating their counterfeiting are as many decisive challenges credibility of WHO to respond to the health challenges of the century.
Health Diplomacy initiative
At the invitation of the ministers of Foreign Affairs Norwegian and French in September 2006 she was launched in New York Health Diplomacy (initiative Foreign Policy and Global Health Initiative ). The Health Diplomacy group comprises seven countries of different levels of development ( South Africa, Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, Thailand), united by a common commitment to greater attention to the challenges of global health in foreign policy . Health Diplomacy initiative functions as an informal framework agreement between the seven countries to collect health challenges with an international dimension.
The March 20, 2007, the seven countries of the initiative defined an agenda for action by the Oslo Ministerial Declaration, which defines ten themes of work:
preparation for the pandemic risk,
emerging infectious diseases,
human resources in health,
health in conflict,
humanitarian crises and natural disasters,
health and environment,
health and development,
health and trade policies,
governance for health security.